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InícioDestaqueHow to Prevent Prostate Cancer: Health Tips and More - Healthline

How to Prevent Prostate Cancer: Health Tips and More – Healthline

Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in people with a prostate. According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), it’s also the second leading cause of death, behind lung cancer, among men in the United States.
Prostate cancer can affect anyone with a prostate. People with a prostate may identify as any gender and can include men, women, and non-binary people.
While there’s no absolute way to prevent prostate cancer, there are some things you can do that may lower your risk. Maintaining a moderate body weight, getting regular exercise, and paying attention to what you eat and drink all play key roles.
In this article, we’ll take a closer look at what you can do to lower your risk of prostate cancer. Keep reading to discover more.
In this article, we talk about lowering the risk of prostate cancer in people who are assigned male at birth. It’s important to note that not everyone assigned male at birth identifies with the label “man.” While we aim to create content that includes and reflects the diversity of our readers, specificity is key when reporting on research participants and clinical findings. Unfortunately, the studies and surveys referenced in this article did not include data on, or include, participants who were transgender, nonbinary, gender nonconforming, genderqueer, agender, or genderless.
Tomatoes, watermelon, and other red foods contain a powerful antioxidant called lycopene. A 2020 review of studies on this topic notes that current research supports that lycopene can effectively reduce the progression and growth of prostate cancer cells.
A 2020 study found that eating canned and cooked tomatoes more than 4 times per week was associated with a 28 percent decrease in prostate cancer risk compared with never eating these foods. However, the researchers noted that, while there was some evidence linking tomatoes to lower risk of prostate cancer, more studies need to be done.
This point is emphasized by a 2021 meta-analysis of 10 studies on tomatoes and prostate cancer. After the analysis was complete, researchers found no significant association between eating tomatoes and prostate cancer risk. They also noted that additional, larger studies are necessary.
If you’d like to add more tomatoes to your diet, you may be wondering the best way to consume them. A 2018 study conducted in a laboratory suggests that cooking tomatoes, specifically frying them, may make it easier for your body to absorb lycopene.
Additionally, the redder the tomato, the better because lycopene accumulates during ripening. That means that pale, store-bought tomatoes that are picked too early have less lycopene than vine-ripened tomatoes.
Eating fresh fruit is an important part of a balanced diet. It’s also possible that it may lower your risk of prostate cancer.
A 2017 study found that people who consumed the highest amount of fruit, especially citrus, had a small reduction in their risk of prostate cancer.
Some examples of citrus fruits to consider trying out are:
It’s important to note that grapefruit can interact with some types of medication. If you take prescription medications and are unsure whether you can have grapefruit, be sure to talk with your doctor first.
A nutrient called isoflavones has been linked to a reduced risk of prostate cancer in at least one small 2014 review of controlled studies. Isoflavones are found in:
Researchers have also long studied the link between green tea and prostate cancer risk, with mixed results. A 2017 study found that prostate cancer risk was lower in men who drank higher levels of green tea. However, the researchers note that these findings need to be tested in larger studies.
A 2017 meta-analysis examined the findings of 10 studies. It found that the occurrence of prostate cancer decreased with each additional cup of green tea per day. Having more than 7 cups per day was linearly associated with a reduction in prostate cancer risk.
An older 2010 review of investigations into green tea and prostate cancer also notes that cell, animal, and some clinical trials suggest a link between the key ingredients of green tea and a lower risk of prostate cancer. Overall, it finds that further large-scale studies are needed.
Many of us enjoy a nice cup of joe in the morning. But did you know that indulging a serious coffee habit is linked to a decreased risk of prostate cancer?
A 2014 meta-analysis of clinical studies suggests that drinking 4 to 5 cups of coffee every day can lower your overall likelihood of prostate cancer, in addition to lowering chances of fatal and high grade prostate cancer.
Meanwhile, a second 2014 meta-analysis saw that the risk of fatal prostate cancer dropped about 11 percent with every 3 cups of coffee.
These findings are supported by a more recent 2021 review of studies. After going over 16 cohort studies, researchers found that higher coffee consumption was associated with lower prostate cancer risk. There was a significant linear trend with each additional cup of coffee per day.
This describes a dose-response relationship between prostate cancer and coffee. That means the effect on prostate cancer goes up or down with the amount of coffee you drink. However, these effects may not extend to someone who only grabs an occasional cup.
Keep in mind that high doses of caffeine can cause side effects, such as upset stomach, rapid heart rate, and trouble sleeping. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends not exceeding 400 milligrams (mg) of caffeine a day, the equivalent of 4 to 5 cups of brewed coffee.
How coffee is prepared may also be a factor. A 2015 study in Norway looked at coffee brewed with a filter and boiled coffee, which doesn’t use a filter. Men who drank boiled coffee seemed to have a lower risk of prostate cancer than men who drank coffee prepared another way or not at all.
The chemicals cafestol and kahweol have cancer-fighting abilities. The researchers believe these chemicals are trapped when coffee runs through a paper filter. Boiled coffee may allow these cancer-fighting chemicals to stay in your daily brew.
A 2014 review of research notes there may be a link between saturated fats and animal fats and an increased prostate cancer risk.
In addition to meat, animal fats are found in lard, butter, and cheese. Some other sources of saturated fat not already mentioned include cakes or pastries, candies, and many types of prepackaged or fast foods.
Whenever possible, replace saturated and animal-based fats with plant-based fats. Try substituting:
Also, overcooking meat produces carcinogens, so be careful not to overcook your meat.
According to the ACS, most studies haven’t found an association between smoking and prostate cancer. Overall, more research is needed to better define how smoking may affect prostate cancer risk.
An older 2011 study found that those who smoke at the time of their prostate cancer diagnosis are more likely to have the cancer come back. Additionally, smoking at diagnosis is associated with a higher risk of death due to prostate cancer or other causes, according to a 2019 study.
It’s not too late to quit. When compared with current smokers, both of the studies above noted that people who had quit smoking before their diagnosis had a much lower risk of death.
For some types of foods and supplements, the data relating to prostate cancer risk is very mixed. Based on this information, it’s best to check with your doctor to discuss what is the best choice for you when it comes to these items.
Some types of fatty acid, known as omega-3, may help reduce your risk of developing cancer. Omega-3 is found in dietary supplements as well as certain fish, including:
There was a study in 2013 that suggested that men with high concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids in their blood are more likely to develop prostate cancer. However, a 2015 review found some problems with the research and stated that the study actually didn’t establish a link between increased intake of omega-3 and increased risk of prostate cancer.
A 2017 systematic review went on to find that there wasn’t currently enough evidence to support that omega-3 intake was associated with prostate cancer risk. It concluded that additional research into this topic is needed.
Further, in 2019, researchers at the Intermountain Healthcare Heart Institute presented two new studies about omega-3s at the 2019 American Heart Association Scientific Sessions. Their research found that omega-3 intake was associated with protection from heart disease-related death and also didn’t appear to be linked with prostate cancer risk.
Folate is found in many foods, including:
It can also be taken as a dietary supplement called folic acid.
Older research from 2009 followed people taking folic acid supplements to help prevent colorectal cancer. Over a 10-year follow-up period, it was found that folic acid supplementation may increase the risk of prostate cancer. However, dietary folate intake actually had a protective effect.
A 2012 systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated studies of folic acid supplementation and cancer risk. It found that prostate cancer was the only cancer type on which folic acid supplementation appeared to boost risk.
Meanwhile, a systematic review and meta-analysis from 2014 looked into this topic further. It found that both dietary and total folate intake, which also included folic acid, had no significant association with prostate cancer.
Calcium has a variety of important benefits for your health. Some studies, according to the ACS, have linked dairy products, or diets high in calcium, with an increased risk of prostate cancer. However, studies have been mixed, and this risk hasn’t been linked to normal dietary intake of calcium.
Having overweight or obesity is linked to an increased risk of several types of cancer. However, generally speaking, the connection between prostate cancer risk and weight appears to be complex.
One 2020 study found that there was only a very weak association between body mass index (BMI) and prostate cancer risk. However, when researchers adjusted for waist circumference, they saw that increasing BMI was associated with higher prostate cancer risk in those with a larger waist circumference.
It’s also important to note that having overweight or obesity can have a negative effect if you’ve already been diagnosed with prostate cancer. For example, there’s an increased risk of prostate cancer progression and recurrence in these individuals.
Regular exercise can help you manage your weight. Benefits of exercise include increased muscle mass, better metabolism, and improved cardiovascular health. Try activities like:
Exercise doesn’t have to be boring. Change up your routine and invite your friends to participate. You’re more likely to work out if it’s fun.
Ask your doctor about your risk of developing prostate cancer. Some points to discuss include:
Tell your doctor if you’re experiencing symptoms that may be warning signs of prostate cancer, such as:
Below, we’ll try to answer some of the additional questions that you may have about prostate cancer.
According to the ACS, aside from skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer in men in the United States. It’s estimated that about 1 in 8 men will develop prostate cancer at some point in their life.
The ACS estimates that about 268,490 men in the United States will be newly diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2022. Additionally, about 34,500 men in the United States will die from prostate cancer in 2022.
In addition to some of the factors we’ve discussed above, there are several other known risk factors for prostate cancer. These include:
When prostate cancer is found early, the outlook is quite good. According to the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, the overall 5-year survival rate of prostate cancer between 2011 and 2017 was 97.5 percent.
SEER breaks down these statistics further based on the extent of the cancer at diagnosis:
Most prostate cancers are diagnosed when they’re either localized or regional.
If you’re diagnosed with prostate cancer, your doctor will help to develop a treatment plan that’s right for your individual situation. It’s possible that a combination of different treatment options may be used.
They may recommend something called expectant management if your cancer doesn’t cause symptoms. During this time, they may monitor your cancer using a variety of tests. Treatment will begin when you develop symptoms or when test results find the cancer is growing.
Other potential treatment options can include:
Doing the following things in your daily life can help you keep your prostate healthy:
It’s also important to see your doctor for regular health checkups. During this time, you can discuss prostate cancer and get information on when you should start receiving prostate cancer screenings. As always, never hesitate to see your doctor if you have concerning symptoms.
It’s not possible to completely prevent prostate cancer. However, there are some steps you can take to lower your risk.
For example, it’s possible that some types of food and drinks may lower prostate cancer risk. Examples include:
Reducing your intake of fats, particularly red meat, may also help reduce your risk.
Aside from diet, other lifestyle factors are also important. Try to take steps to quit smoking, manage your weight, and get regular exercise.
Never hesitate to see your doctor if you develop potential prostate cancer warning signs like urinary problems or pain in your pelvis, hips, or back. If these symptoms aren’t caused by prostate cancer, they may be due to another condition that needs to be treated.
Last medically reviewed on February 2, 2022



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